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Subject: What is a Gaffer ( Filmmaking)
Content: A  gaffer  in the  motion picture industry  is the head of the electrical department, responsible for the execution (and sometimes the design) of the  lighting  plan for a production. Gaffer, outside of the motion picture industry, is a traditional  British English  word for an older man or boss. It is essentially a variant on grandfather, used as a term of respect for a village elder, and applied to those in charge of workers since the 19th century. Gaffer within the motion picture industry originally related to the moving of overhead equipment to control lighting levels using a gaff. It has been used for the chief electrician in films since 1936. [ 1 ]  His assistant is the  best boy . [ 2 ] Sometimes the gaffer is credited as  Chief Lighting Technician  (CLT). Experienced gaffers can coordinate the entire job of lighting, given knowledge of the time of day and conditions to be portrayed, managing resources as broad as  electrical generators , lights,  cable , and manpower. Gaffers are responsible for knowing the appropriate color of  gel (plastic sheeting) to put on the lights or windows to achieve a variety of effects, such as transforming midday into a beautiful sunset. They can re-create the flicker of lights in a  subway  car, the motion of light inside a turning airplane, or the passage of night into day. Usually, the gaffer works for and reports to the  director of photography  (the DP or DOP) or, in television, the Lighting Director (LD). The DP/LD is responsible for the overall lighting design, but he or she may give a little or a lot of latitude to the gaffer on these matters, depending on their working relationship. The gaffer works with the  key grip , who is in charge of some of the equipment related to the lighting. The gaffer will usually have an assistant called a  best boy  and, depending on the size of the job, crew members who are called " electricians ", although not all of them are trained as  electricians  in the usual sense of the term. Colloquially they are known as 'sparks'. Gaffer tape  is but one of the many types of tape that a gaffer, key grip, or any other member film crew uses in a variety of situations. Other types of tape include  Paper tape ,  Snot tape ,  Electrical tape ,  J-LAR , and  Cloth tape . For more info go to  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaffer_(filmmaking)